Prince Albert Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term that encompasses various pathological conditions that affect the organs and tissues which make the gas exchange possible. The conditions that fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, include issues with the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity as well as the muscles and nerves which are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting like the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a medical doctor specializing in this area in particular is known as a pulmonologist. Other names for this particular medical practitioner comprise: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
There are lots of classifications used for the various respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the organ or tissue involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of connected symptoms and signs, or based on the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Several examples include: emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.
Allergic responses are a common cause of acute respiratory disease. This is caused by the exposure to different agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods could include lemon, radish, sea foods such as some fatty fish and prawns, bananas, peanuts, dairy and ice creams, pomegranates, lemon, arrowroot, lady's finger and berries. Weather conditions could also affect some individuals because dusty and sandy climate during summertime can make the quality of air poor for those who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways comprising the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, thus making it harder to move air into and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPD's like asthma and various obstructive lung diseases, the airways have become damaged and allow them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's may result in incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or likewise called Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an instance.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory infections can affect all parts of the respiratory system. These infections are usually divided into either an upper respiratory tract infection or a lower respiratory tract infection.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract certain organs may consist of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection will usually be a result of Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia all around the globe. Various viruses and fungi can cause pneumonia as well, like for example pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Respiratory tumours are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Pleural cavity diseases include emphysema and mesothelioma. A pleural effusion is a collection of fluid within the pleural cavity. This can be due to conditions like cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, since the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may likewise occur from pleura inflammation, TB, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and other conditions.
A hole in the pleura that covers the lung and allows air inside the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is called a pneumothorax. In this example, the affected lung collapses like a balloon that is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe kind of this where the air could not escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the heart and blood vessels, leading to a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation are referred to as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Some examples include: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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